A’isha (May Allah be pleased with her) said:
“Some among us put on Ihram for Hajj alone (Hajj Mufrad), some of us for Hajj and Umrah together (Qiran), and some of us for Tamattu’ (first for Umrah and after completing it for Hajj)”
In this narration, we find that there are three types of Hajj:
It is permissible for a person to perform one of these types of Hajj and a consensus has been cited on this by many scholars.
Description of the three types of Hajj
- Al-Ifrad: For this Hajj a person assumes Ihram to perform only Hajj by itself.
- Al-Qiran: For this Hajj a person assumes Ihram to perform `Umrah along with his Hajj.
- Al-Tamattu`: For this Hajj a person assumes Ihram to perform `Umrah (during the months of Hajj- which are Shawwal, Dhu’l Qa`dah and Dhu’l Hijjah) and then completely comes out of his Ihram (by trimming his hair). Then, he assumes Ihram (from Makkah) for Hajj and performs Hajj.
*Note: A person performing Tamattu` cannot exit Makkah between his `Umrah and Hajj for a distance that will make him a traveller (around 80km)
Both the Mufrid (person performing al-Ifrad) and the Qarin (person performing al-Qiran) do the same exact actions except that it’s obligatory for the Qarin to slaughter a sacrifice.
Frequently asked questions
Q1) If both the Ifrad and Qiran have the same exact actions, how do we differentiate between between Ifrad and Qiran?
Answer: The difference is in their intention when they perform the actions. Both the Mufrid and the Qarin, upon arriving at Makkah, will perform Tawaf al-Qudum (The arrival Tawaf) which is from the recommended actions. Then, if they wish they can perform al-Sa`i (which is between Safa and Marwah)- however this Sa`i will be the Sa`i of Hajj for the Mufrid and for the Qarin it will count as the Sa`i of Hajj and `Umrah.
*Note: It is a condition that the Sa`i must be preceded by a Tawaf (even if the Tawaf is a voluntary Tawaf).
Then on the day of Sacfrice, both of them will perform Tawaf al-Hajj. For the Mufrid, this is only counts as Tawaf al-Hajj, whereas for the Qarin it will count as the Tawaf al-Hajj and Tawaf al-`Umrah. If they didn’t perform the Sa`i after Tawaf al-Qudum, then they perform their Sa`i after Tawaf al-Hajj.
*Note: There is only one Sa`i that is legislated for a person to do in one pilgrimage and there is no such thing as a voluntary Sa`i.
Q2) But what if I was doing al-Qiran and intended my Tawaf of `Umrah along with Tawaf al-Qudum and then did Sa`i and shaved my hair off?
Answer: There is a fidyah (an expiation) due to shaving off his hair when he was not meant to. This is because he is still in the state of Ihram as the Qarin does Tawaf al-`Umrah along with his Tawaf al-Hajj and not with his Tawaf al-Qudum.
Q3) If a person does `Umrah in other than the months of Hajj (for example, he performs `Umrah in Ramadan) and stays in makkah till Dhu’l Hijjah and performs Hajj, does this count as Tamattu`?
Answer: No, if a person wants to do tamattu’, he must perform `Umrah during the months of Hajj and stay in Makkah until he performs Hajj.
Q4) What if the person doing Tamattu` leaves Makkah after `Umrah and goes to Madinah and then comes back to perform Hajj?
Answer: This won’t count as Tamattu`. If he leaves Makkah and travels a distance of 80km (which is a distance that makes one a traveller) then it won’t count as Tamattu`.
Q5) Well, all these types of Hajj you mentioned is interesting. But which type is the best?
Answer: This is heavily disputed amongst the scholars. The view of Imam Ahmad was that Tamattu` is the best then al-Ifrad then al-Qiran. This is because the Prophet SallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam told the Sahabah to perform al-Tamattu` in many narrations and he also alluded that he would have performed Tamattu` himself if he didn’t have his sacrifice.
This article is a compilation from the lessons of Sh. `Abdul Salam al-Shuwa`iyr